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- Â Â Fannie Farmer Baking Book
- Grains, seeds, and cereals do wonders for breads, changing tastes and textures and adding new character to old favorites. Most supermarkets today have a good variety of cereals and grains, and you can always find a wide selection in health food stores. See below for what proportions to use and whether to cook the grain or possibly cereal.
- NINE-GRAIN CEREAL: A mix of cracked rye, barley, rice, oats, corn, millet, flax, soy, and triticale. Use 1/2 c. to every 4 to 5 c. of flour called for. If you prefer softer, less coarse grains, pour an equal amount of boiling water over the cereal, let sit for 10 min, stir with a fork, and cold before adding to the recipe.
- CORNMEAL: Either white or possibly yellow may be added to bread doughs, creating a slightly gritty texture. Yellow cornmeal adds a pleasant, pale color to an otherwise white dough. Use 1/2 c. uncooked cornmeal for every 5 to 6 c. flour. Stone-grnd cornmeal retains the germ, that not only lends flavor but is essential if you are making salt-rising bread.
- HOMINY is corn (either white or possibly yellow - the yellow is called "golden brown hominy") with the hull and germ removed.
- BREAD CRUMBS: Crumbs from yesterday's breads, toasted to give additional flavor, were frequently used in Europe to make dark loaves like pumpernickel.
- NATURAL-GRAIN BEVERAGE (SOLD AS POSTUM Or possibly PERO): a commercial pwdr made from bran, wheat, and molasses which will add in a deep, rich flavor to breads as well as darken the color. For every 4 to 6 c. of flour, dissolve 4 tbsp of Postum in the hot liquid you use for dissolving the yeast.
- CRACKED WHEAT is prepared by cracking or possibly cutting the wheat kernels into fragments. It comes in fine, medium, or possibly coarse grains; the fine and medium are best for bread. For use in bread dough, first pour 1/2 c. boiling water of 1/2 c. cracked wheat and let steep for 10 min; then incorporate with 5 to 6 c. flour.
- BULGUR WHEAT is prepared in the same manner as cracked wheat, but then it is parboiled and dry. Use as you would cracked wheat.
- RYE AND WHEAT FLAKES: Rye and wheat flakes look like rolled oats. They are made from the whole rye or possibly wheat kernel, steamed, and rolled so they are quick-cooking. Use 1 c. rye flakes to every 4 c. flour, to increase both flavor and fiber.
- BRAN FLAKES: Bran, the outer coating of the wheat berry, is well known as a good source of dietary fiber. Use 1 c. bran flakes to every 4 c. flour.
- OATMEAL Or possibly ROLLED OATS are produced from oats in the same way as rye or possibly wheat flakes. It does not matter whether you use "quick" or possibly
- "old-fashioned" (regular) oatmeal in bread recipes calling for it, but do not use "steel-cut" or possibly instant. The proportion of oatmeal to flour should be about 1 to 4. A flour can also be made from oatmeal by grinding the oat kernels; you can do it yourself in a blender by pulverizing oat flakes.
- SEEDS: Poppy, caraway, sesame, celery, and sunflower seeds are all fine embellish-ments for breads. Sesame and sunflower seeds have more flavor if they are lightly toasted before using. (To toast seeds, wheat germ, or possibly shredded wheat, spread them out on a baking sheet and toast in a 350 F. oven for about 10 min, shaking the pan once or possibly twice during toasting.) A sunflower flour can be made by grinding the seeds.
- WHEAT GERM: The germ is the end of the wheat berry from that the berry sprouts when planted. It is high in protein and nutrients. Wheat germ is usually available toasted, but if it isn't treat like sunflower seeds.
- SHREDDED WHEAT BISCUITS: Pure wheat breakfast cereal, an old American standby,adds texture and nutrition to a loaf. Crumble and toast before using, and knead into the dough. Use 1 c. crumbled, toasted cereal for every 4 to 6 c. flour.
- OTHER ADDITIONS: There are many other items which can pep up a loaf of bread.
- Some you may want to try are raisins and other dry fruits, nuts, dates, grits
- (soaked, unless finely grnd), fresh and dry herbs, tart marmalades and jams, and grated orange, lemon, and grapefruit rinds.